English and [kanada]
French) is the world's
second-largest country by area, occupying most of northern
America. Extending from the
Atlantic Ocean to the
Pacific Ocean and northward into the
Ocean, Canada shares land borders with the
United States to the south and to the northwest.
Inhabited first by
Aboriginal peoples, Canada was founded as a union of
British colonies, some of which had been
French colonies. Canada peacefully obtained independence from the
United Kingdom between
Canada is a
constitutional monarchy and
parliamentary democracy, consisting of ten
provinces and three
territories, and defines itself as a
multicultural nation; both
official languages. A technologically advanced and industrialized nation,
economy relies heavily on an abundance of natural resources and on trade,
particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a
long and complex relationship.
1 Origin and
history of the name
relations and military
7 Geography and
13 See also
Origin and history of the name
The name Canada comes from the word meaning "village" or "settlement"
language spoken by the inhabitants of
and the neighbouring region near present-day
City in the 16th century.
Jacques Cartier was first to use the word "Canada" to refer not only to the
Stadacona, but also to the neighbouring region and to the Saint-Lawrence
River. By 1545, European books and maps began referring to this region as
The French colony of
New France, was set up along the
Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the
Lakes. Later, it was split into two British colonies, called
Canada until their union as the British
Province of Canada in 1841. Upon
Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was officially adopted for the new
which was referred to as the Dominion of Canada until the 1950s. As
Canada increasingly acquired political authority and autonomy from
Britain, the federal government increasingly used simply Canada on
state documents and treaties. The
Canada Act 1982 refers only to Canada and, as such, is currently the
only legal (and bilingual) name. This was reflected again in 1982 with the
renaming of the national holiday from
Dominion Day to
Although Aboriginal tradition holds that the
First Peoples inhabited parts of Canada since the dawn of time,
archaeological studies date human presence in northern
Yukon to 26,000
years ago, and in southern
9,500 years ago.
Europeans first arrived when the
settled briefly at
L'Anse aux Meadows circa AD 1000. The next Europeans to explore Canada's
Atlantic coast included
in 1497 and
Martin Frobisher in 1576 for
Jacques Cartier in 1534 and
Samuel de Champlain in 1603 for
first permanent European settlements were established by the French at
Port Royal in 1605 and
City in 1608, and by the English in
Newfoundland, around 1610. European explorers and trappers brought European
diseases that spread rapidly through native trade routes and decimated the
The Death of General Wolfe
, painted by
Benjamin West, depicts British
General Wolfe's death after his victory at the
Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.
For much of the
century, the English and French colonies in North America were able to
develop in relative isolation from each other. French colonists extensively
St. Lawrence River valley, while English colonists largely settled in the
Thirteen Colonies to the south. However, as competition for territory, naval
bases, furs and fish escalated, several wars broke out between the French,
English and Native tribes. The
French and Iroquois Wars erupted between the
Confederation and the
with their French allies, over control of the fur trade. A series of four
French and Indian Wars were fought between 1689 and 1763; these culminated
with a complete British victory in the
Seven Years' War. By the terms of
Treaty of Paris in 1763, Britain gained control of all of France's North
American territory east of the
Mississippi River, except for the remote islands of
St. Pierre and Miquelon.
Following the war, the British found themselves in possession of a mostly
Roman Catholic territory, whose inhabitants had recently taken up arms
against Britain. To avert conflict, Britain passed the
of 1774, re-establishing the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil
law in Quebec. The act had unforseen consequences for Britain, however, as it
angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, helping to fuel the
Following the independence of the United States, approximately 50,000
United Empire Loyalists moved to
Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland.
As they were unwelcome in Nova Scotia,
Brunswick was carved out of that colony for them in 1784. To accommodate the
English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the province was divided into francophone
Canada and anglophone Upper
Canada under the
Constitutional Act in 1791.
Canada was a major front in the
1812 between the United States and British Empire and its successful defence
had important long-term
effects on Canada, including the building of a sense of unity and
nationalism among British North Americans. Large-scale immigration to Canada
began in 1815 from Britain and Ireland. A series of agreements led to long-term
peace between Canada and the United States, interrupted only briefly by raids
made by political insurgents such as the
Hunters' Lodges and the
Following the failed
Rebellions of 1837, which demanded
responsible government, colonial officials studied the political situation
and issued the
Durham Report in 1839. One goal—which proved unacceptable for the alliance
of anglophone and francophone reformers that had rebelled in 1837-was to
assimilate the French Canadians into British culture. The
Canadas were merged into a single, quasi-federal colony, the
United Province of Canada, with the
Act of Union (1840). The signing of the
Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the
Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the
49th parallel and ending joint occupation of the
District. This led to the creation of the colony of
Vancouver's Island in 1849 and, with the outbreak of the
Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, the colony of
British Columbia in 1858, but both were entirely separate from the United
Province of Canada. By the late 1850s, leaders in Canada launched a series of
western exploratory expeditions, with the intention of assuming control of
Rupert's Land and the
The Canadian population grew rapidly due to high birth rates; high European
immigration was offset by emigration to the United States, especially by French
Canadians moving to
John A. Macdonald, first
Great Coalition, the
Charlottetown Conference the
Quebec Conference of 1864, and the
London Conference of 1866, the three colonies—Canada, Nova Scotia, and New
Brunswick—undertook the process of
British North America Act created "one dominion under the name of
Canada", with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New
After Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the
North-Western Territory, which together formed the
Northwest Territories in 1870, inattention to the
Métis led to the
Red River Rebellion and ultimately to the creation of the province of
and its entry into Confederation in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver
Island (which had
united in 1866) and the colony of
Prince Edward Island joined the Confederation in 1871 and 1873,
respectively. To connect the union and assert authority over the western
provinces, Canada constructed three trans-continental railways, most notably the
Canadian Pacific Railway, encouraged immigrants to develop the prairies with
Dominion Lands Act, and established the
North West Mounted Police. As settlers went to the prairies on the railway
and the population grew, regions of the Northwest Territories were given
provincial status forming
Saskatchewan in 1905.
Canadian soldiers advance behind a tank at the
Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917.
Canada automatically entered the
First World War in 1914 with Britain's declaration of war, and sent formed
divisions, composed almost entirely of volunteers, to the Western Front to fight
as a national contingent. Casualties were so high that Prime Minister
Robert Borden was forced to bring in
conscription in 1917; this move was extremely unpopular in Quebec, resulting
in his Conservative party losing support in that province. Although the Liberals
were deeply divided over conscription, they became the dominant political party.
In 1919, Canada joined the
League of Nations in its own right, and in 1931 the
Statute of Westminster confirmed that no act of the
British Parliament would extend to Canada without its consent. At the same
time, the worldwide
Great Depression of 1929 affected Canadians of every class; the rise of the
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Alberta and Saskatchewan
presaged a welfare state as pioneered by Tommy
Douglas in the 1940s and 1950s. After supporting appeasement of Germany in
the late 1930s, Liberal Prime Minister
William Lyon Mackenzie King secured Parliament’s approval for
entry into the Second World War in 1939, mobilizing the military before
Germany invaded Poland.
The economy boomed during the war mainly due to the amount of military materiel
being produced for Canada, Britain, China and the Soviet Union. Canada finished
the war with one of the largest militaries in the world.
In 1949, the formerly independent
Dominion of Newfoundland joined the Confederation as Canada's 10th province.
By Canada's centennial in 1967, heavy post-war immigration from various
war-ravaged European countries had changed the country's demographics.
In addition, throughout the
War, thousands of American
dodgers fled to and settled in various parts of Canada.
Increased immigration, combined with the baby boom, an economic strength
parallelling that of the 1960s United States, and reaction to the
Quiet Revolution in Quebec, initiated a new type of Canadian nationalism.
At a meeting of First Ministers in November 1981, the federal and provincial
governments agreed to the
of the constitution, with
procedures for amending it. Despite the fact that the Quebec government did
not agree to the changes, on
17 April 1982, Canada, by
Proclamation of Queen Elizabeth II, patriated its Constitution from Britain,
thereby making Canada wholly sovereign, though the two countries continue to
share the same monarch.
After Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes during the
Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, some
began pressing for greater provincial autonomy, or partial or complete
independence from Canada. Alienation between English-speaking Canadians and the
Québécois over the language, cultural and social divide had been exacerbated by
many events, including the
Conscription Crisis of 1944. While a referendum on
1980 was rejected by a solid majority of the population, a second referendum
1995 was rejected by a margin of just 50.6% to 49.4%.
In 1997, the Canadian Supreme Court ruled
unilateral secession by a province to be unconstitutional; Quebec's
sovereignty movement has continued nonetheless.
Economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since
World War II. The
Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement of 1987 was a defining moment in
integrating the two countries. In recent decades, Canadians have worried about
their cultural autonomy as American television shows, movies and corporations
However, Canadians take special pride in their
system of universal health care and their commitment to multiculturalism.
Canada is a
constitutional monarchy with
Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada as head of state,
parliamentary democracy with a
parliamentary government and strong democratic traditions.
Canada's constitution governs the legal framework of the country and
consists of written text and unwritten traditions and conventions.
The Constitution includes the
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees basic rights and
freedoms for Canadians that, generally, cannot be overridden by legislation of
any level of government in Canada. It contains, however, a "notwithstanding
clause", which allows the federal parliament and the provincial legislatures
the power to override some other sections of the Charter temporarily, for a
period of five years.
The position of
Prime Minister, Canada's
head of government, belongs to the leader of the political party that can
obtain the confidence of a majority in the
House of Commons. The Prime Minister and his or her cabinet are formally
appointed by the
Governor General (who is the queen's representative in Canada.) However, the
Prime Minister chooses the cabinet, and by convention, the Governor General
respects the Prime Minister's choices. The
Cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the Prime Minister's party in
both legislative houses, and mostly from the House of Commons. Executive power
is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the
Privy Council of Canada and become Ministers of the Crown. The Prime
Minister exercises a lot of political power, especially in the appointment of
other officials within the government and
Stephen Harper, leader of the
Conservative Party, has served as Prime Minister since
federal parliament is made up of the Queen and two houses: an elected House
of Commons and an appointed
Senate. Each member in the House of Commons is elected by
simple plurality in a
"riding" or electoral district; general elections are called by the Governor
General when the Prime Minister so advises, and must occur every five years or
less. Members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis,
are chosen by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the Governor General,
and serve until age 75.
Canada's four major political parties are the
Conservative Party of Canada,
Liberal Party of Canada,
New Democratic Party (NDP), and the
Bloc Québécois. The current government is formed by the Conservative Party
of Canada. While the
Green Party of Canada and other smaller parties do not have current
representation in Parliament, the list of
historical parties with elected representation is substantial.
judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to
strike down laws that violate the Constitution. The
Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and is led by
the Right Honourable Madam Chief Justice
Beverley McLachlin, P.C. Its nine members are appointed by the
Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. All judges at the
superior and appellate levels are appointed by the Governor General on the
advice of the prime minister and minister of justice, after consultation with
non-governmental legal bodies. The federal cabinet appoints justices to superior
courts at the provincial and territorial levels. Judicial posts at the lower
provincial and territorial levels are filled by their respective governments
Court system of Canada for more detail).
law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where
civil law predominates.
Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout
Canada. Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is a provincial
responsibility, but in most provinces policing is contracted to the federal
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).
Foreign relations and military
Canada has a close
relationship with the United States, sharing the world's longest undefended
border, co-operating on some military campaigns and exercises, and being each
other's largest trading partners. Canada also shares history and long
relationships with the
United Kingdom and
France, the two
imperial powers most important in its founding. These relations extend to other
former-members of the British and French empires, through Canada's membership in
Commonwealth of Nations and
Over the past 60 years, Canada has been an advocate for
multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration
with other nations.
This was clearly demonstrated during the
Crisis of 1956 when
Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing
peacekeeping efforts and the inception of the
United Nations Peacekeeping Force.
In that spirit, Canada developed and has tried to maintain a leading role in UN
peacekeeping efforts; Canada has served in 50 peacekeeping missions, including
every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989.
Canada's UN peacekeeping contributions have diminished over the first years of
the 21st century.
Canadian soldiers in
A founding member of the
North Atlantic Treaty
Organisation (NATO), Canada currently employs about 62,000 regular and
26,000 reserve military personnel.
Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the
air force. Major CF equipment deployed includes 1,400 armoured fighting
vehicles, 34 combat vessels, and 861 aircraft.
In addition to major participation in the
Second Boer War, the
First World War, the
Second World War, and the
Canada has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations
and NATO since 1950, including peacekeeping missions, various missions in the
Yugoslavia, and support to coalition forces in the
First Gulf War. Since 2001, Canada has had troops deployed in
Afghanistan as part of the
U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded
International Security Assistance Force. Canada's
Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) has participated in three major
relief efforts in the past two years; the two-hundred member team has been
deployed in relief operations after
Hurricane Katrina in September 2005, after the
Kashmir earthquake in October 2005 and after the
December 2004 tsunami in South Asia.
Canada is composed of ten provinces and three territories. The provinces are
Newfoundland and Labrador,
Prince Edward Island,
Saskatchewan. The three territories are the
The provinces have a
large degree of autonomy from the federal government, the territories
somewhat less. Each has its own
provincial or territorial symbols.
The provinces are responsible for most of Canada's social programs (such as
welfare) and together collect more revenue than the federal government, an
almost unique structure among federations in the world. The federal government
can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the
Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in
Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that
reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the
richer and poorer provinces.
All provinces have
legislatures headed by a
Premier selected in the same way as the Prime Minister of Canada. Each
province also has a
Lieutenant-Governor representing the
Queen, analogous to the Governor General of Canada, appointed on the
recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada, though with increasing levels of
consultation with provincial governments in recent years.
Geography and climate
Canada occupies most of the northern portion of
America. It shares land borders with the
contiguous United States to the south and with the US state of
Alaska to the
northwest, stretching from the
Atlantic Ocean in the east to the
Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the
Ocean. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W
this claim is not universally recognized. The northernmost settlement in Canada
(and in the world) is
Forces Station (CFS) Alert on the northern tip of
Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—just 834 kilometres (450
nautical miles) from the North Pole. Canada is the world's second-largest
country in total area, after
The population density of 3.5 people per square kilometre (9.1/mi²)
is among the lowest in the world.
The most densely populated part of the country is the
Quebec City-Windsor Corridor along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River
in the southeast. To the north of this region is the broad
Canadian Shield, an area of rock scoured clean by the
last ice age, thinly soiled, rich in minerals, and dotted with lakes and
rivers—Canada by far has more lakes than any other country in the world and has
a large amount of the world's freshwater.
In eastern Canada, the Saint Lawrence River widens into the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest
Newfoundland lies at its mouth. South of the Gulf, the
Canadian Maritimes protrude eastward from the
Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec.
Scotia are divided by the
Fundy, which experiences the world's largest tidal variations.
dominate central Canada. West of Ontario, the broad, flat
Canadian Prairies spread toward the
Rocky Mountains, which separate them from
Northern Canadian vegetation tapers from
forests to tundra
and finally to Arctic barrens in the far north. The northern Canadian mainland
is ringed with a vast
archipelago containing some of the world's largest islands.
Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada range depending on
the location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly
in the Prairie provinces, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C
but can drop below -40 °C (-40 °F) with severe wind chills.
Coastal British Columbia is an exception and enjoys a temperate climate with a
mild and rainy winter.
Average summer high temperatures across Canada range depending on the
location. On the east and west coast average high temperatures are generally in
the low 20s °C (68 to 74 °F), while between the coasts the average summer high
temperature range between 25 °C to 30 °C (78 to 86 °F) with occasional extreme
heat in some interior locations exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).
For a more complete description of climate across Canada see Environment
Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations, a member of the
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and
Group of Eight (G8). Canada is a
market economy with slightly more government intervention than the United
States, but much less than most European nations. Canada has traditionally had a
lower per capita
gross domestic product (GDP) than its southern neighbour (whereas wealth has
been more equally divided), but higher than the large western European
economies. For the past decade, after a period of turbulence, the Canadian
economy has been growing rapidly with low
unemployment and large government surpluses on the
federal level. Today Canada closely resembles the U.S. in its
market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living
as of July
2006, Canada's national unemployment rate of 6.4% is among its lowest in 30
years, provincial unemployment rates vary from a low of 3.6% in Alberta to high
of 14.6% in Newfoundland and Labrador.
In the past century, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and
service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one
primarily industrial and urban. As with other
first world nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the
service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians.
However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the
primary sector, with the
industries being two of Canada's most important.
Canada is one of the few developed nations that is a net exporter of energy.
Canada has vast deposits of natural gas on the east coast and large oil and gas
resources centred in Alberta, and also present in neighbouring British Columbia
and Saskatchewan. The vast
Athabasca Tar Sands give Canada the world's second largest reserves of oil.
In Quebec, British Columbia, Newfoundland & Labrador, Ontario and Manitoba,
hydroelectric power is a cheap and relatively environmentally friendly
source of abundant energy.
Canada is one of the world's most important suppliers of agricultural
products, with the Canadian Prairies one of the most important suppliers of
wheat and other grains.
Canada is the world's largest producer of zinc and uranium and a world leader in
many other natural resources such as gold, nickel, aluminum, and lead;
many, if not most, towns in the northern part of the country, where agriculture
is difficult, exist because of a nearby mine or source of timber. Canada also
has a sizeable manufacturing sector, centred in southern Ontario, with the
automobile industry especially important.
In part due to the large primary sector Canada is highly dependent on
international trade, especially trade with the
United States. The 1989
Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which included Mexico) touched
off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the U.S. Since
2001, Canada has successfully avoided economic recession and has maintained the
best overall economic performance in the G8.
2001 national census recorded 30,007,094 people; the population is currently
Statistics Canada to be 32.5 million people.
Population growth is largely accomplished through
immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. About three-quarters of
Canada's population live within 160 kilometres (100 mi) of the U.S.
border. A similar proportion live in
concentrated in the
Quebec City-Windsor Corridor (notably the
census metropolitan areas), the BC
Lower Mainland (Vancouver
and environs), and the
Calgary-Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.
Canada is an ethnically diverse nation. According to the 2001 census, it has
34 ethnic groups with at least one hundred thousand members each. The largest
ethnic group is Canadian (39.4%), followed by
Ukrainian (3.6%) and
American Indian (3.4%).
aboriginal population is growing almost twice as fast as the rest of the
Canadian population. In 2001, 13.4% of the population belonged to
Canadians adhere to a
wide variety of religions. According to the last census,
77.1% of Canadians identified as being
Christians; of this,
make up the largest group (43.6% of Canadians). The largest
denomination is the
United Church of Canada; about 17% of Canadians declared no religious
affiliation, and the remaining 6.3% were affiliated with religions other than
Christianity, of which the largest is
In Canada, the provinces and territories are responsible for education; thus
Canada has no national department of education. Each of the 13 education systems
are similar while reflecting their own regional history, culture and geography.
The mandatory school age varies across Canada but generally ranges between the
ages of 5-7 to 16-18,
contributing to an adult literacy rate that is 99%.
Postsecondary education is the responsibility of the provincial and territorial
governments that provide most of their funding; the federal government provides
additional funding through research grants. In 2002, 43% of Canadians aged
between 25 and 64 had post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34 the
postsecondary attainment reaches 51%.
Canada's two official languages,
French, are the
mother tongues of 59.7% and 23.2% of the population, respectively.
On July 7,
1969, under the
Official Languages Act, French was made commensurate to English throughout
the federal government. This started a process that led to Canada redefining
itself as an officially "bilingual"
English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in
all federal institutions. The public has the right, where there is sufficient
demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French.
multiculturalism is official policy, to become a citizen one must be able to
speak either English or French, and 98.5% of Canadians speak at least one
(English only: 67.5%, French only: 13.3%, both: 17.7%).
French is mostly spoken in Quebec, but there are substantial francophone
populations mainly in the northern parts of New Brunswick, eastern and northern
Ontario and southern Manitoba. Of those who speak French as a first language,
85% live in Quebec. French is the official language of Quebec. New Brunswick is
the only bilingual province in the country.
No provinces other than Quebec and New Brunswick have constitutionally official
language(s) as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts,
and other government services in all of the majority English or Inuktitut
speaking provinces and territories. Several aboriginal languages have official
status in Northwest Territories.
is the majority language in Nunavut, and one of three official languages in the
Non-official languages are important in Canada, with 5,202,245 people listing
one as a first language.
Some significant non-official first languages include
Chinese (853,745 first-language speakers),
German (438,080), and
Canadian culture has historically been heavily influenced by
Aboriginal cultures and traditions, and over time has been greatly
influenced by American culture due to its proximity and the interchange of
capital between the two countries. Many forms of American media and
entertainment are popular, if not dominant in Canada; conversely, many Canadian
cultural products and entertainers are successful in the US and worldwide. Many
cultural products are now marketed toward a unified "North American" market, or
a global market generally.
The creation and preservation of distinctly Canadian culture has been partly
influenced by federal government programs, laws and institutions such as the
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the
National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).
As Canada is a geographically vast and ethnically diverse country, there are
cultural variations and distinctions from province to province and region to
region. Canadian culture has also been greatly influenced by more recent
immigration of people from all over the world. Many Canadians value
multiculturalism, indeed some see Canadian culture as being inherently
Multicultural heritage is enshrined in
Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
National symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and
Nations sources. Particularly, the use of the
as a Canadian symbol, dates back to the early 18th century and is depicted on
penny, and on the
coat of arms. Other prominent symbols include the
the Crown, and the
Canada's official national sports are
Hockey is a
national pastime, and is by far the most popular spectator sport in the
country. It is also the most popular sport Canadians play, with 1.65 million
active participants in 2004.
Canada's six largest metropolitan areas - Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa,
Calgary, and Edmonton - have franchises in the
National Hockey League (NHL), and there are more Canadian players in the
league than from all other countries combined. Other popular Canadian spectator
Canadian football (especially the
Canadian Football League). Golf,
are widely played at youth and amateur levels, but professional leagues and
franchises are not as widespread. Canada will host the
2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, and the
2010 Winter Olympics in
Globalization Index 2005
||14 out of 111
World Competitiveness Yearbook 2005
||5 out of 60
The World in 2005 - Worldwide quality-of-life index, 2005
||14 out of 111
Environmental Sustainability Index, 2005 (pdf)
||6 out of 146
Reporters Without Borders World-wide
Press Freedom Index 2005
||21 out of 167
Corruption Perceptions Index 2005
||14 out of 159
Wall Street Journal
Index of Economic Freedom, 2006
||12 out of 157
Human Development Index
||5 out of 177
Canada was ranked number one country by the United Nations'
Human Development Index 10 times out of 16 between 1980 and 2004.